ABSTRACTS                                             

  • Study on Access to Credit for Businesswomen

  • Study on Government's Knowledge, Attitudes and Motivations on Pro-poor Sanitation

  • Availability, Equity and Accessability of Public Services in Indramayu District: Result of Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) IV

  • Management of Authorities in the Regional Autonomy Era : Result of Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) III in Bekasi District

  • Availability, Equity and Accessability of Public Services in Bekasi District: Result of Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) IV

  • Local Response to Decentralization Policy and It's Impact on the Business Environment

  • ASEAN SME Policy Study

  • Impact of One Stop Service Office to Local Revenue and Efficiency of Business Licensing: Case Study in Gianyar and Bandung

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Presence of Big Retailers





























     

     

     

     

     

     

    Edy Priyono, Sapprudin M, Rianti Setyawasih, Erlinda Ekaputri, Dety Wulandari, Kunarti dan Kuswahyudi, 2005.  Study On Access to Credit For Businesswomen.  Akademika – International Finance Corporation (IFC)/PENSA.

    ABSTRACT

                The purpose of this study is to answer these and related questions: “Does this market observation that women are better borrowers than men hold true in Indonesia and does it hold true for small business borrowers?”

    The unit of analysis for the study will be firm, both for demand side and supply side.  For the demand side, the unit of analysis will be business entity (either formal or informal) manged or owned by women.  For the supply side, the unit of analysis will be bank.  The study is cunducted in Surabaya, East Java. 

    Up to now, there is no BI regulation on loan disbursment for women.  The only regulation that came close to arranging loan disbursment for woment is regulation on Small-scale Enterprise Credits (KUK).  In general, bank declines credit proposal for poor business prospects and unsound (prospective) borrower’s character.

    Low loan disbursment to women is a demand side problem.  From the banking side, there is no bias towards the other side (bank does not prefer men to women customers).

    Women tend to be very careful before applying for bank credits.  Survey results showed that around 50% of women respondents never submitted bank credit applications with various reasons.  Some of the reasons are they did not need bank loans (35.7%), they are fear of defaults (21.4%) and it is within their personal beliefs that they did not want to borrow (7.1%).  Note the last reasons was found only among women respondents (no men respondents suggested it).

    Problem of women access to credit occurred when there is a gap between demand side (women entrepreneurs) and sully side (banks) in any aspects.  That could be in term of interest rate, term of conditions, schemes, etc.

    According to the bank, to increase women entrepreneurs acces to bank credit, it will need all the supports from various parties.  Academic support from universities, Business Development Service (BDS), etc. in helping SMEs preparing accounting-based financial statements. A rating company is needed to assess creditable companies.  Existence of a rating company will speed up feasibility study by bank.  Bank also need information from seminars, workshops and other researches/studies which describe women entrepreneurs ability in doing businesses.

    To improve women entrepreneurs acces to credit, women needs outside information.  Approximately 14% of women entrepreneurs stated that they needed information from other sources (besides bank) to facilitate credit application. 

    To promote womens access to bank credit, there is an indication that an intermediary institution is needed to bring banks and women customers closer.  Around 11% of women entrepreneurs said a special institution was required to reduce complication in credit application.  Women entrepreneurs need technical assistance in order to increase their access to bank credits (there are about 18% of women respondents). 

    Most of businesswomen’s requirements might not be easy to accommodate particularly by banking sector.  Approximately 44% of women entrepreneurs mentioned other request in relation to improving their credit access.  Some of them are: simple procedures, low interest rate, soft credit and unproblematic collateral.

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    Edy Priyono, Erlinda Ekaputri, Masturoh, Sulistiani, Ina Amelia, Aan Andriyani, Maria Ulfah, Kurniawati Mulyanti, Yayan Rudianto dan Aos Koswandi, 2006.  Study On Government’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Motivations on Pro-poor Sanitation.  Akademika – The World Bank.

    ABSTRACT

    The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to public investment and reforms in sanitation.  More specifically, the objectives of  the study are: (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes among the target audience (which is decision maker in the government level) on sanitation in general and investment in sanitation in particular; (2) to assess the motivation among decision makers to invest public fund in sanitation; (3) to identify the behavior (knowlwdge, attitude and motivation) of the influencing institutions on sanitation and investment in sanitation in particular.

    The study is cunducted in six city districts (Solok, Blitar, Surakarta, Denpasar, Pekalongan and Gorontalo).  The instruments used self assessment, in-depht interview and focus group discussion.  The respondents is government officials (central and local level) as first target audience, legislative such as experts, local opinion leader, academics, etc.  Two data analysis methods to be used in this study are Likert scale to measure the cognitive aspect (knowledge) and affective aspect (attitude) and Semantic Differential scale to measure the motivation.

    Based on the evidence, improving technical and conceptual knowledge on sanitation program to local government officials and lawmakers is needed. In particular, the local governments need to understand the most appropriate method of  waste water management for their respective areas, the considerable magnitude of poor sanitation-related problems (health and future environmental problems) and to identify lower cost technologies to provide good sanitation facilities.

    As a result of their lack of knowledge on how to handle wastewater, local governments did not consider domestic wastewater management as their responsibility. Most respondents did not know how to properly treat domestic/household waste water either since most assume that sanitation is a private good that individual households should have on-site sanitation facilities and no further treatments were required.   It is not like the case of solid waste that all government officials understand that solid waste should be disposed of individual household garbage bins to solid waste treatment facilities so not to create health problems.

    There is a substantial difference between central and local government’s perceptions on sanitation for the poor.  Central government argued that the poor should still have paid for sanitation (economic approach) while local government thought that it should be free of charge (social approach). The debate should be settled before a pro-poor sanitation program that involves both central and local government is launched. Otherwise, it would hinder its implementation and adversely affect its sustainability. 

    “Cross subsidy” could be the optimal solution for the debate between economic and social approach in treating the poor.  Under the system, everybody should pay, but the rich should pay much more than the poor.

    The role of central government was still very much critical in providing information and references for local government.  However, in influencing local government decision-making processes, political approach plays the most important roles.  The top-down approach (where the role of central government was dominant) ranked second. The bottom-up and technocrats (where academic analysis matters) approaches ranked below the two. At the strategic level, a “political game” is needed to put water sanitation at the proper position in the local government plan.  Since the local governments consider “popular demand” much, an intensive campaign to increase public awareness is needed.  The same step should be taken for local parliament.  The expected result is more pressure to local governments to prioritize water sanitation, and then central government and other relevant institution should help local governments to response the pressure properly.

    Under “political approach”, local legislatures have the most essential role in determining local government decisions, including one regarding sanitation programs. Central government was important factor too in the process and could motivate local government to participate more in sanitation programs.   One of the next agenda should be encouraging local government to provide good sanitation facilities either by either awarding special trophy for the best waste water management or incorporating waste water treatment in existing “Adipura” trophy which until now focusing on solid waste management.

    Local government considered the press as one of the most important sources of information. Therefore, the press should be involved to influence both local government and local people perception to exercise better water sanitation.

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    Edy Priyono, Eva Dian Laily, Kurniawati Mulyanti and Rusham, 2003. Management of Authorities in the Regional Autonomy Era : Result of  Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) III in Bekasi District. Akademika- The Asia Foundation-USAID. 

    ABSTRACT
     
         
    IRDA is a qualitative study designed to monitor the recent condition of implementation of decentralization in Indonesia.  IRDA III was the first IRDA in Bekasi District.  The study itself was focused on the issue of how do local governments manage their authorities that initially owned by central government.  Some crucial issues were examined such as: policy formulation, review function of central/province, resource (personnel and fund) management, and public accountability.  The study found that local government of Bekasi District formally follow the principle of bottom-up approach in planning, but not in the proper interpretation.  Government officials mean the approach as a process that involving lower level of government institution in the development planning, instead of involving community.  In general local government feels that they ara facing lack of quality personnel.  In term of quantity, there is a shortage in the very specific position, i.e: supervisor at the Local Labor Office.  There is an embryo of public participation, but not yet well institutionalized.  Also, there a limitation of the capacity of local parliament members in controlling local government. 
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    Sapruddin M. Perwira, Yunita Sari and Rita Ratna Puri, 2004. Availability, Equity and Accessability of Public Services in Indramayu District: Result of Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) IV. Akademika-The Asia Foundation-USAID.
     
    ABSTRACT
     
         IRDA IV was focused on the involvement and influence of both public service provider and user in the provision of public services. Three sectors were taken as priority in this study namely: (1) basic services such as health, education, trade and administration, (2) public utility such as clean water, electricity and telecommunication, and (3) security. For basic services, the study was looking at four main aspect: availability, accessability, equity and public participation.
         In health sector, local government priority is services for mother and children to reduce maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR). On average there are two health centers in each sub-district in Indramayu. From the community side, the availability of healt facilities is good enough and can be easily reached.
         In education sector, community  feels  lack of teachers quality, especially at secondary level of education. There is school board but not yet functioned well.
         There are some significant efforts of local government to provide people with clean water, electricity and security. The different case is for telecommunication. To keep stability, relevant officials oftently visit lower level of community to get feedback and to raise participation.
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    Edy Priyono, Dety Wulandari, Kurniawati Mulyanti and Yayan Rudianto, 2004.  Availability, Equity and Accessability of Public Services in Bekasi District: Result of Indonesia Rapid Decentralization Appraisal (IRDA) IV. Akademika-The Asia Foundation-USAID. 

    ABSTRACT 

         IRDA IV was focused on the involvement and influence of both public service provider and user in the provision of public services. Three sectors were taken as priority in this study namely: (1) basic services such as health, education, trade and administration, (2) public utility such as clean water, electricity and telecommunication, and (3) security. For basic services, the study was looking at four main aspect: availability, accessability, equity and public participation.
         Services for mother and children reach up to lowest level of community through integrated service center (posyandu) activities. The service could be enjoyed freely (for posyandu) or at very low price (for health center). However, in term of quality those could not satisfy the community.
         Main problem faced by education sector is quality of elementary school building. More than 50% of school building need serious rehabilitation. Meanwhile, for other sector, the community thinks that business licensing is overregulated, uncertain and not transparent. From provider side, quality of service of electricity is good enough, since it could reach 99% of households, but not for the quality. For security, the need of the community is much more than capacity of the officials, particularly due to limited number of police. Although many things has been done by the police, community still feels unsecure.
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    Edy Priyono, Tata Tachman, Hendratno, Mundiharno, and Gatot Arya Putra, 2003. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Presence of Big Retailers. Akademika-PEG-USAID. 

    ABSTRACT 

         In general, the study aimed at analysing net benefit of the presence of big retailer and then come to the conclusion on the impact of the presence of big retailers in Indonesia. Competition in retailing business cannot simply describe as “big vs small”, because there is a competition among the bigs as well as among the smalls. The most serious competitor for small retailers is big retailers that penetrate their market through modern minimarket. Since minimarket is in the “grey area” (according to current regulation), they can enter to all markets without any restriction. Beside, minimarket growth is suppported by inconsistency of the government in implementing land use regulations.
         There is a tendency for unfair competition in the retailing business in Indonesia due to ineffective government policy. Some wholesalers are playing as retailers as well.
         Although has a negative impact for small retailers, the presence of big retailers has a positive net benefit for the community as a whole. The impact for small retailers is not as big as usually reported by them. The real impact of the big retailers to their turnover is not more 4% approximately.
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    Edy Priyono, Sapruddin M. Perwira, and Agus Ediawan, 2001. Local Response to Decentralization Policy and Its Impact on the Business Environment. Akademika-PEG/USAID.
     
    ABSTRACT
     
          The main objective of the study is to find out the impact of implementation of regional autonomy policy in Indomesia. The study is a combination between desk study (secondary data analysis) with small field survey in three districts (Yogyakarta, Bantul and Makassar). One of the main findings is that the central government clearly has not completed its big works to issue many regulations to make the policy effective and to avoid possible negative impact of the implementation of the policy. At district level, there are two contradictory responses by local governments. First, there is a spirit to release tight regulations on the business activities through (especially) one stop service office. But, on the other hand, the other spirit is to gain more local revenue from business activities. Meanwhile, the private sector (especially small medium enterprises) is in the “wait and see” position. Their main concern is whether the government (either at central level or local level) has an intention to “disturb” their market (rather than to levy them without disturbing the market). The big question to balance the interest of all agents is how to increase (local) revenue of local government without burdening the private sector. One of the possible answers to the question is to re-formulate the balancing fund allocation, particularly related to the distribution of corporate income tax. That is needed to make a clear link between enabling business environment with local government interest.
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    Edy Priyono, Ira Setiati, and Gatot Arya Putra, 2001. ASEAN SME Policy Study. Akademika-The Asia Foundation-PEG/USAID. 

    ABSTRACT 

         The main objective of the study is to analyse information about policies implemented by key ASEAN member countries. The goal is to formulate a set of recommendations for the government of Indonesia based on good practices among ASEAN countries.
        Open market policy without significant government intervention has benefited SMEs in Singapore. The main role of the government is as a facilitator to create enabling environment for SME. In contrast, Thailand tends to protect SME through some government interventions. Meanwhile, Malaysia focuses their programs on the strengthening small-medium industries, rather than SME as a whole. Most of government programs in Malaysia is implemented using matching grant principle. In the other words, Malaysia is trying to stand in between two extreme policies (protective vs market approach).
        The proposal for the government of Indonesia is to reduce their direct intervention programs and pay more attention on the good policies to improve business environment in Indonesia. In an enabling environment, it is believed that the SMEs will grow normally and has a specific position in the business competition.
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    Edy Priyono, Sapruddin M. Perwira and Hendratno, 2002. Impact of One Stop Service Office to Local Revenue and Efficiency of Business Licensing: Case Study in Gianyar and Bandung. Akademika-The Asia Foundation-PEG/USAID.
     
    ABSTRACT
     
         There is a concern that one stop service (OSS) will reduce local revenue. In the other hand, there is a claim that OSS has raised the local revenue. This study aimed at looking at the impact of OSS on local revenue and efficiency of business licensing.
         Hypothesis that OSS would raise or reduce local revenue is not proven by the study, particularly because the contribution of revenue from licensing to local budget is very small. However, the study found that OSS could cut the time used for releasing business licenses. In term of cost, there is no significant impact of OSS. That finding indicates that efforts to improve efficiency of business licensing is not over yet after the development of OSS office.
          Also, the study found that corruption is still exist at the OSS office, especially in the form of “grateful money” for certain official. That indicates that advocacy to develop OSS should be combined with clear step to develop control mechanism to minimize corruption at the OSS office.
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